Front cover—(top left to
right) Clarence Bogart, switchman, Lima
Refinery; James Yaccino, associate Marketing
and Refining Planning systems analyst, Home
Office; Kenneth Dillard, service station sales-
man, Chagrin and Northfield Servicenter,
Shaker Heights, Ohio; (left center) Marcia
Matey, customer masterfile clerk, Sohio Credit
Card Center, Home Office; (right center)
James Furr, dispatcher. Trunk Lines Head-
quarters, Vandalia, Ohio; (bottom center)
unidentified Prudhoe Bay oil field worker;
(bottom right) Alice Hooper, salesgirl at
Medina, Ohio, Dutch Pantry restaurant.
Inside Front Cover- Charles M. Nix, Decoker Cleaner (left) and Howard L. Swartz, Insulator work at Sohio's Toledo Refinery
Back cover—(upper left) Edward Wardlow,
chemist specialist, Warrensville Laboratory;
(upper right) Raymond Sponberg, foreman.
Pauls Valley (Oklahoma) Production District;
(bottom left) Rozella Day, room receptionist,
Lexington (Kentucky) Hospitality Motor Inn;
(bottom right) John Davis, design coordinator,
Loma Division of Vistron Corporation, Fort Worth, Texas.




1870 Henry M. Flagler and Stephen V. Harkness join the Rockefeller brothers and Andrews in incorporating The Standard Oil Company in Cleveland on January 10, with capitalization of $1 million. The name, suggested by the refinery, is chosen to imply standardization of quality and practices in a chaotic industry. John Rockefeller is elected president.

1872 Standard Oil now controls 21 of 26 refineries in Cleveland and all the chief refineries in New York, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh; capitalization is increased to $3.5 million over the next three years to finance acquisitions of which The Atlantic Refining Company of Philadelphia is one of the largest.

1878 Standard establishes its first product distribution plant (bulk station in later terminology), consisting of a warehouse and stable in Toledo, which also serves Southeastern Michigan and Northeastern Indiana; acquires three refineries whose aggregate property will eventually constitute site of present No. 2 Refinery in Cleveland.

1880 Standard completes 102-mile, 5-inch pipeline to transport crude from production areas near Titusville, Pennsylvania, to Cleveland refineries.

1882   The Standard Oil Trust Agreement goes into effect with nine trustees holding all stock in Standard and 40 affiliated companies which comprise nearly 90 percent of the nation's refining capacity. The trust establishes new marketing units in New York and New Jersey to carry the Standard name; Ohio Standard's marketing territory (which had extended across the Northern United States), its property (spread over 13 states and several foreign countries), and its equipment are reduced and assigned to other affiliates.

1883   Ohio Standard's Toledo bulk station records first use of tank wagons and encourages Cleveland Works to become world's largest manufacturer of tank wagons; No. 1 Works also makes tank cars and barrels for entire trust organization.

1885   Large reserves of crude oil are discovered at Lima, Ohio, but crude is "sour" and considered useless by everyone but Rockefeller; he insists on developing the field.

1886   Trust establishes Standard Oil Company of Kentucky, builds experimental Solar Refinery in Lima, and organizes Buckeye Pipe Line Company to transport and store Lima crude.

1887  Trust forms Ohio Oil Co. (now Marathon Oil) as its first producing company to produce Lima crude. Lima becomes world's leading production area.

1889 Trust incorporates Standard Oil of Indiana to build and operate refinery at Whiting, Indiana, to process Lima crude by newly discovered, Standard-patented methods.

Tank wagons, made famous by Ohio Standard, delivered kerosine and gasoline to customers.

South side of Cleveland's Public Square, about 1890-95. Standard's first office was in block bearing "Hull & Dutton" sign. Today's Home Office in 18-story Midland Building is behind building bearing "Bo-Lo" sign.

Cleveland Wagon Works (photo in 1910) made tank wagons for use by Standard Oil affiliates around the world until dissolution.

First of a series of superservice stations of English Tudor motif was built in 1929 at East 89th and Carnegie in Cleveland. Its large crew models Sohio's military-style uniform introduced in early 1930.

1893 Detroit tinkerer Henry Ford buys a gallon of Ohio Standard's stove gasoline for use in his new-fangled gasoline motor; Duryea brothers of Springfield, Massachusetts, propel a buggy with a one-cylinder gasoline engine.

1899  Standard of New Jersey is reorganized into a central holding company for all companies in the Standard Trust; redrawn marketing boundaries assign Ohio Standard's Michigan and Indiana territories, about two thirds of its marketing area, to Standard of Indiana.

1900  John D. Rockefeller retires, but retains honorary title of president until 1911. Ambrose M. McGregor is elected Ohio Standard's second president but dies ten months later; Frank Q. Barstow succeeds to presidency; auto registrations in Ohio total 480.

1901  Ohio Standard introduces direct selling to householders of gasoline and kerosine in one-gallon cans; Red Crown Gasoline, for use in stoves or automobiles, is introduced in Ohio; Polarine Motor Oil is manufactured at No. 2 Refinery.

1903 Ohio Standard installs its first pension plan; Wright brothers make first successful airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, using Standard Oil lubricants.

1906 Missouri attorney general files suit against Jersey Standard for violation of Sherman Antitrust Act; Kentucky Standard pulls out of Southwestern Ohio market leaving Dayton-Cincinnati market to Ohio Standard.

1907 Red Crown Gasoline is now made for use in automobiles only; Ohio Standard moves general office to new building on East 55th Street in Cleveland after occupying Standard Building on Euclid Avenue downtown since 1874.

1908 President Barstow dies and is succeeded by Henry M. Tilford.

1910   Ohio Standard uses motorized tank wagon for first time but still relies on service from about 900 horses.

1911   U. S. Supreme Court orders Standard Oil of New Jersey to divest itself of holdings in 33 other companies. Ohio Standard becomes independent as a one-state marketer with outmoded, small refinery (capacity 3,400 barrels per day versus 10,000 b/d 20 years earlier). The company owns no crude and no pipelines, and its assets total only $6.6 million. But gasoline outsells kerosine for the first time in the United States, and Ohio Standard is estimated to hold about 85 percent of the gasoline business in the state. Walter C. Teagle served as Ohio president for a short time before dissolution. A. Palmer Coombe is elected president after dissolution. Ohio Standard still specializes in manufacture of tank wagons, cans, and containers, and in printing.

1912 Ohio Standard erects first drive-in "filling station" in Ohio at Columbus, an austere metal shack which motorists drive through for a fill-up.

1914  Ohio Standard now has 12 service stations operating in Ohio which cost about $500 each to equip.

1915   Company drops drive-through feature of service stations and adds a canopy; begins feverish development of service stations and bulk stations as competition for gasoline market intensifies, mostly from firms entering Ohio market.

1916   Ohio Standard is a pioneer in introducing uniform design for service stations; Ohio's are 15-foot-square sheet metal buildings with canopy, painted white with green trim; they resemble the capital letter "A"; station salesmen are dressed in white duck uniforms.

1921 Company completes new refinery at Toledo with capacity of 10,000 barrels per day, which greatly reduces Ohio's dependence on others for refined products.

An oil field in the late nineteenth century, about the time when the Lima, Ohio, field was prolific.

1922 Net profit for the year is $6.8 million, which will stand as a record until 1946. Discoveries of vast oil fields in the Western United States create national oversupply of crude; integrated marketers with excess of gasoline "dump" it in Ohio market through cut-price operations, knowing that Ohio Standard cannot retaliate in their markets.

Making a barrel at Standard in the 1890's as shown in McClure's magazine.

1923 Ohio Standard launches its first towboat, The Standard, which transports products between Ohio River terminals. Refiners Oil Company of Dayton, Ohio, later to become a Sohio subsidiary, introduces a new gasoline called "Ethyl" which is designed to curtail knocking in high-compression engines.

1924 Ohio Standard is forced to close about 40 stations as uneconomical in the face of gasoline price wars; now operates 410 in Ohio; distributes Ohio road map through service stations for the first time.

1925 The last horse is retired—Ohio Standard's transportation fleet is now totally motorized.

1927 Total gasoline sales are down to 18 percent of the Ohio market from 43 percent before two-year skid began.

1928 Sales hit low of 10 percent of market in April; Coombe retires as president and Wallace Trevor Holliday is elected; entire board of directors is replaced in a year. Holliday puts prices on a competitive basis; introduces name Sohio; paints stations red, white, and blue; increases refinery production from 50 percent to full capacity; institutes a shorter work week and employee benefits; launches intensive advertising program focusing on new trade name—Sohio Ethyl Gasoline. Gasoline sales for the last six months of the year average 78 percent above the same period in 1927, with the new premium gasoline achieving about 50 percent of total gasoline sales. Earnings for the year are up nearly 70 percent.

Other events in 1928 include purchase and renovation of a closed refinery at Latonia, Kentucky, with a capacity of 8,000 barrels per day; purchase of Spears and Riddle wholesale company which is transformed into Fleet-Wing Corporation; and formation of the Employees Mutual Benefit Association.

Cleveland Cooperage Works, near today's No. 2 Refinery, employed 3,000 persons who made some 10,000 wooden barrels a day for Standard Oil's worldwide operations. (Photo about 1900)


1929 Sohio eliminates many bulk stations in consolidating its distribution system; adopts English hunting-lodge style for new "servicenters"; replaces obsolete fleet with new and bigger trucks; introduces Sohio Motor Oil.

1930 Depression lowers sales volumes; Sohio builds asphalt-producing plants at Cleveland and Latonia refineries; buys minority interests in Ajax Pipe Line Company, which provides Oklahoma-to-lllinois leg of crude line to Sohio's three refineries; acquires Refiners Oil Company, which operates 60 bulk stations and 300 service stations in Southwestern Ohio; sells Atlas tires in service stations for the first time.

1931 Sohio acquires Solar Refining Company of Lima; now manufactures all of its own refined products for the first time; introduces X-70 (regular), and Renown Green, a third-grade gasoline; adds batteries and accessories to the line of products sold in stations.

1932 Sohio has first of three years of net losses on operations; the four sales districts are reorganized into 13 divisions.

1934 Sohio begins establishing its own crude oil pipeline transportation system. Over the next six years, Sohio buys, builds, and expands crude gathering and trunk lines into a 2,200-mile network linking Mid-Continent and Southwestern Oil to all four refineries.

1937 Sohio builds its first products pipelines radiating from Cleveland, Latonia, and Toledo refineries. By 1939 the lines will connect all refineries with virtually all major distribution centers. Sohio acquires its first oil-producing properties and oil and gas leases—in Kentucky—as it strives to stabilize its sources of crude.

1939 Profits recover from Depression doldrums to highest level since 1922; a new premium gasoline, "Sohio Supreme," is introduced.

1941 The United States enters World War II; during the next two years the Federal government fixes prices, rations tires and gasoline. Sohio converts refining facilities to production of 100-octane aviation gasoline; acquires 13 barges and two towboats to transport crude up the Mississippi River to Ohio terminals; women work as service station saleswomen.

Making cans in Cleveland in the 1890's—from McClure's.

Standard's No. 1 Refinery in 1889 when Cleveland was the center of the world petroleum industry and "illuminating oil" was its chief product.

Sohioettes manned gasoline pumps while men fought in World War II.

1943 Sohio intensifies exploration activities. Production will go from 1,868 barrels per day in 1942 to 20,671 in 1945, more than 30,000 in 1949.

1945 Sohio acquires 59-year-old Canfield Oil Company, which has 210 service stations in Northeastern Ohio.

1947 Increase in common stock shares from 3.25 million to 5 million nets $13.5 million to finance postwar rehabilitation; discovery well comes in at Eola Field, Oklahoma—most prolific in Sohio's history.

1948  Sohio launches $100-million replacement and expansion program, including $30 million to expand Lima Refinery by 15,000 barrels per day.

1949   Sohio and Sun Oil begin $55-million, 1,000-mile, 22-inch crude line from Texas to Ohio through a jointly owned affiliate, The Mid-Valley Pipeline Company; Clyde T. Foster becomes Sohio president.

1950   Mid-Valley pipeline completion allows Sohio to sell its river fleet of 11 tow-boats, plus barges; Sohio X-Tane regular gasoline replaces Sohio X-70.

1953 Sohio and partners complete construction of 466 miles of crude lines in Texas which tie into Mid-Valley line; production headquarters are moved to Oklahoma City.

1954 Sohio introduces Boron gasoline; begins construction of $17-million petrochemical plant at Lima that will put Sohio in the business of manufacturing and selling fertilizers and other petrochemical products.

1955 Subsidiary Sohio Chemical Company is formed to market petrochemical products; Sohio joins Iranian Oil Consortium.

1956 Construction begins on a $39-million integrated refinery at Toledo which will have capacity of 60,000 barrels per day; Sohio opens a service station in Newport, Kentucky, under the name of a subsidiary, the Boron Oil Company; Sohio and Consolidation Coal Co. of Pittsburgh establish jointly owned Mountaineer Carbon Company to operate carbon calcining plant at Cresap, West Virginia.

1957 Charles E. Spahr becomes Sohio president; $2.4-million Warrensville Research Center is opened; announce Sohio's revolutionary one-step process for making acrylonitrile. It will be licensed throughout the world and hailed as one of the most outstanding contributions to living standards in 25 years.

1958 Sohio completes a plant at Lima to manufacture acrylonitrile by its own process; introduces Extron as a regular-grade gasoline.

Distribution center in Willoughby, Ohio, about 1920. Trucks replaced horses entirely by 1925.

Famous"A" stations (1925 photo) were green and white before 1928, when they were painted red, white, and blue. Outdoor grease rack is at right.

Ohio Standard built state's first drive-in "filling station" at Columbus in 1912.   Sohio truck refuels Army Air Corps pursuit plane at Dayton in 1931.

1960 Sohio invests a record $7.3 million in service station sites and construction; moves to exploit the developing Interstate Highway System; a 47,000-ton tanker is commissioned for worldwide trade.

1961  Sohio introduces Duron, four-grade motor oil; unveils a redesigned Sohio oval.

1962   Boron Oil Company launches full-scale entry into Western Pennsylvania market; Latonia Refinery is closed; Sohio enters plastics field with acquisition of Champion Molded Products Company of Bryan, Ohio.

1963   Sohio opens first company-owned truck stop near Ashland, Ohio; launches second tanker; acquires the Pro-phy-lac-tic Brush Company of Florence, Massachusetts, a leading plastics company and the world's largest manufacturer of toothbrushes; forms Cardinal Vending Company; string of record-setting-profit years begins.

1964  Capital investments for marketing reach record $18.9 million to keep pace with rapid expansion of interstate highways and Boron Oil Company's growth; Sohio joins in a venture to acquire and develop oil shale properties; new subsidiary, Hospitality Motor Inns, opens its first inn in Willoughby, Ohio.

1965 Sohio acquires nearly total interest in Canadian Delhi Oil Limited; acquires The Plastex Company, maker of plastic pipe, and Ox Fibre Brush Company, maker of household and industrial brushes; develops new catalyst for making acrylonitrile.

1966 Sohio participates in construction of Capline, a 40-inch crude line from Southern Louisiana to Illinois; replaces 47,000-ton tankers with 61,000-ton tankers; acquires full interest in Mountaineer Carbon; closes down No. 1 Refinery except for asphalt production; acquires Filon Corporation of Hawthorne, California, maker of plastic panels; acquires Loma Industries, Inc., of Fort Worth, Texas, maker of plastic housewares.

1967 Sohio forms subsidiary Vistron Corporation to embrace all chemicals and plastics activities; announces $75-million expansion of Lima Refinery to increase capacity to 130,000 barrels a day; Hospitality Motor Inns begins construction of franchised Dutch Pantry Restaurants.

1968   Boron Oil Company enters Southeastern Michigan market on massive scale; Sohio acquires Old Ben Coal Corporation, introduces QVO Motor Oil, enters a joint exploration for uranium in Western states, and transforms the Oil and Gas Department into the Natural Resources Department.

1969   Sohio amalgamates with British Petroleum Company Limited by acquiring its United States subsidiary, BP Oil Corporation, which has large reserves of crude on Alaska's North Slope and markets in 16 Eastern states; spends the greatest amount for capital expansion in its history; reports "modest" uranium discovery in Western United States; introduces Golden Boron Gasoline; begins manufacture of acrylamide; Charles E. Spahr is elected chairman of the board of directors effective January 1, 1970, and continues as chief executive officer. Alton W. Whitehouse is elected president.

President Clyde T. Foster poses at drilling rig in 1955 on occasion of Eola Field discovery well producing one-millionth barrel of oil.

World's largest dirigible, the U.S.S. Macon, used Sohio aviation gasoline on her maiden flight in Akron in 1933.